Ammunition Evaluation and Testing
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          Ammunition evaluation and testing services are available including velocity testing, penetration testing in a variety of materials, ricochet testing, gunshot residue deposition testing, etc.

          We can set up testing protocols and gather data relevant to any given set of circumstances which relate to case specific needs.

          Ammunition can also be compared microscopically for manufacturing marks (such as the bunter marks shown below) which may demonstrate an association of a specific ammunition with ammunition seized from a specific source or individual.

          These four photos show "bunter" marks. The bunter is the tool used to stamp the "head stamp" markings on each cartridge such as manufacturer & caliber. Microscopic comparisons are routinely made on fired cartridge cases found at a crime scene to unfired cartridges found in the possession of a suspect. This is particularly true where no firearm was recovered. Research has indicated that the cartridges were made in the same factory, on the same bunter machine at or about the same general time frame thus showing a circumstantial association between the suspect and the crime. Research continues in the meaning and importance of manufacturing tool marks seen in different types of manufacturing processes.